The truth about Poland

February 14, 2018 by Stephen J. Thorne

Auschwitz concentration camp.
Courtesy of Peter Waiser
The names are synonymous with Nazi Germany’s diabolical plan to exterminate Europe’s Jewish population: Sobibor, Treblinka, Auschwitz. All of them, and multiple other extermination and concentration camps, were in German-occupied Poland.

At least half the six million Jews who died in the Holocaust were Poles who met their end in Nazi death camps located in Poland. Another 1.9 million non-Jewish Poles, including political, religious and intellectual leaders, also died in Nazi camps. Numerous more were killed in massacres and executions.

In a country of 38 million people, Poland’s Jewish population today numbers just 5,000. Before the Second World War, it was 3.3 million.

A destroyed gas chamber at Auschwitz.
Courtesy of Peter Waiser
Where Poland’s Jews met their end is beyond question. Determining how they came to be in places such as Auschwitz, where 1.1 million died, is fraught with controversy, and it has been Jan Grabowski’s life’s work.

At great personal risk, Grabowski has spent 20 years examining the Holocaust in Poland and the role Poles played in it. For the past five, he and his team of researchers have been investigating individual cases in nine Polish counties.

Tapping archives in Poland, Germany and Israel, as well as face-to-face interviews with survivors and others, they tracked the fate of tens of thousands of Jewish Poles from their homes to the camps where most of them died.

Grabowski’s 1,200-page report, to be released later this spring, is “very bleak.” And in what is bound to add fuel to the fire of Polish government denial and right-wing indignation, it paints a clear picture of widespread complicity in Jewish deaths.

“Less than one-fifth survived,” said the author, a history professor at the University of Ottawa. “We are dealing with tens of thousands of dead Jews who were either murdered by the Poles or were delivered to the Germans for execution.

“We are talking here about complicity in the Holocaust on a quite significant level.”

Grabowki’s findings came as Poland’s right-wing president, Andrzej Duda, signed a controversial bill making it illegal to accuse the nation of complicity in crimes committed by Nazi Germany, including the Holocaust.

The law, which will next be reviewed by the country’s Constitutional Tribunal, also bans the use of terms such as “Polish death camps” in reference to Auschwitz and other Nazi extermination sites. Violators can be punished by fine or a jail sentence of up to three years.

Grabowski, who has received death threats over his work, says the law will “paralyze independent research into the role of Poles in the Holocaust,” especially in a country where police and prosecutors have all but replaced an independent judiciary since Duda’s nationalist Law and Justice party was elected 30 months ago.

“This law is intended to muzzle, stifle and stop any kind of serious research into Polish complicity during the Holocaust,” said Grabowski.

History professor Jan Grabowski of the University of Ottawa.
Jan Grabowski
Heavily influenced by church and nationalist attitudes prevalent throughout much of Eastern Europe at the time, pogroms and other anti-Semitic violence, further fuelled by an indifferent state, rose in Poland in the 1930s.

Germany invaded in September 1939, overrunning the country in six weeks. Nazis disdained Poles. They killed and enslaved millions during a brutal occupation and, says Grabowski, “were never interested in drafting Poles to co-operate.”

Germans and Ukrainians operated the death camps. But the Nazis had other ways of exploiting Polish sentiment.

“The Germans gave licence to vile behaviour,” Grabowski, 55, said in an interview with Legion Magazine. “What you see, especially, is that violence toward the Jews grew with every month of occupation.

“People knew that hurting the Jews was not only not going to bring them any shame, it was actually going to bring them rewards, and they jumped on the German bandwagon. This is the part of the story Polish society does not want to hear today. Very many people got rich off Jewish misery and then off Jewish death. There are very many dark areas that have not been properly researched in Polish history until now.”

During the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising in 1943, captured Jews are searched and interrogated before being sent to a concentration camp in Poland.
Adding to the case for widespread complicity among Poles is that, unlike in France, the Netherlands and elsewhere, Jews in Poland were not rounded up and loaded aboard trains for what their neighbours could easily convince themselves was an uncertain fate. Treblinka was just down the road, less than an hour’s drive from Warsaw. Jews and Gentiles alike, said Grabowski, knew the Jews’ fate.

“Mass murder of Jews in Poland happened in their midst,” said Grabowski. “The camps were next door. It was a question of common knowledge, not of vague rumour like it was in France.”

Right-wing zealots regularly harass Grabowski. His family has been threatened. Polish groups have tried on multiple occasions to get him fired from his teaching position. The Polish League Against Defamation called his views damaging.

“He falsifies the history of Poland, proclaiming the thesis that Poles are complicit in the extermination of Jews,” the league wrote in letters circulated to universities in Europe and North America. One letter was signed by 130 Polish scholars—none of whom, Grabowski’s supporters said, has any role in Holocaust studies.

“Grabowski fails to adhere to the fundamental rules of researcher’s credibility,” his detractors said. “He uses vivid and exaggerated statements to create propagandistic constructions, rather than to provide an honest picture.”

Scores of pre-eminent international Holocaust scholars in turn wrote to the chancellor of the University of Ottawa, defending Grabowski as a scholar of “impeccable personal and professional integrity,” praising his courage and damning his critics.

“The current attack on Prof. Grabowski by the Polish League Against Defamation…is baseless, putting forth a distorted and whitewashed version of the history of Poland during the Holocaust era,” their letter states.

The university’s Human Rights Research and Education Centre issued a statement condemning the league and lauding the quality and depth of Grabowski’s work.

“The League has sought to highlight the efforts of Poles who courageously protected Jews—a small group of people who unquestionably deserves recognition, especially given the hostility and danger they encountered during and after World War II,” it said. “Nevertheless, the basic facts of the Holocaust in Poland are stark and inexcusable and merit ongoing awareness to help prevent their recurrence or similar events.”

Polish contributions to the Allied war effort were many. Polish codebreakers started solving Nazi cyphers in the early-1930s and turned over their findings to their Bletchley Park counterparts in England just before the Germans invaded in 1939.

More than 300 Polish guerrilla fighters, known as Cichociemni (the silent and unseen), were trained in Britain and parachuted into occupied Poland starting in 1941. The first such air drops behind German lines, they led the resistance movement against the Nazi occupation. The Armia Krajowa (the home army) peaked at 300,000 men and women, considered by far the biggest resistance movement under the Third Reich. It succeeded in briefly liberating Warsaw in the summer of 1944.

Poland’s exiled armed forces were constant contributors between 1939 and 1945. By May 1940, there were 84,500 Polish troops fighting in France and Syria.

Poles also fought in Italy, North Africa and on the Eastern Front. Nearly 150 Polish pilots flew in the Battle of Britain, and the Polish navy served in the Baltic Sea, the North Sea, at Dunkirk and Dieppe, during the Battle of the Atlantic, and at the D-Day landings. The 1st Polish Armored Division became part of the 1st Canadian Army and ultimately closed the Allied gap at Falaise, an escape route for German forces.

But at war’s end, Poland “emerged as the heaviest loser on the winning side,” historian Andrzej Suchcitz told the Ex-Combatants Association in Great Britain.

Shoes taken from prisoners at Auschwitz.
Courtesy of Peter Waiser
“At Tehran in the autumn of 1943, Poland was handed over by her Western allies to Soviet rule,” Suchcitz wrote in 1995. “The Yalta conference only confirmed this act of betrayal for Poland and her people.

“VE-Day did not sound the bells of victory and a time of peaceful reconstruction. It ushered in a new foreign occupation in which the new Poland, robbed of half her territory annexed by the U.S.S.R., found herself under the Soviet heel.

“The struggle continued for a further 45 years until true independence was once more restored in December 1990.”

  • Brian Preston

    Professor Grabowski is an experienced and respected professor and he scores a 3.9 out of 5 by students on the internet. He does not support historical revisionism which is all too prevalent in these extremely politically correct times we live in. The Mi’kmaq of Halifax have succeeded in having Halifax take down the statue of the city founder General Cornwallis, and they want to further eradicate history by having two streets renamed in Nova Scotia that bear his name. The same is happening in the USA where Civil War statues and the Confederate flag are being removed from public parks and buildings. Professor Grabowski epitomizes true historical research integrity and he follows the leads wherever they take him. Just because the findings are unpleasant to some Poles today is no reason to create laws banning such research and making history known to its peoples so that such horrific history is not repeated! Educators seem to know this lesson better than many politicians and the uninformed public, who will further languish in blissful ignorance of what really happened!

  • stevie 1950

    Mr Preston, I don’t understand your reference to the removal of the Cornwallis statue. If you mean it’s as wrong to eradicate history as it is to wrongly ‘revise’ history, and that the whole story about Cornwallis including the scalping of Mi’kmaq should be added to the statue, instead of eradicating all historical information about him and what happened, then I would agree with that. I also would go further and add that it was some of the Mi’kmaq who started the scalping 1st, of English soldiers and settlers and taking bounties to do so from the French Catholic Priest Father Le Loutre on approval and funding from the French government. I would also want added that the very same British soldiers who latter expelled the Acadians and their 1st Nations allies were the very same who then still later became the military leaders of the War of Independence from the British Empire to become the United States. My guess why they expelled the Acadians and 1st Nations allies was because they had agreed to become British subjects and thereby posed a potential future military resource to be used by the British to put down the American colonial traitors. The whole stories are long past due.

  • Pole77

    “At great personal risk, Grabowski has spent 20 years examining the Holocaust in Poland” – his controversial book was published in 2011, so 7 years ago some readers realised that such person existed. A protest against Grabowski’s speculations was signed by about 200 people in 2017.

  • Pole77

    “being sent to a concentration camp in Poland” – do you imply there existed “Poland” in 1943? Nazi Germany annected part of Poland, eg. Auschwitz, and terrorized General Government, breaking aany international law.

  • JetHag

    “…epitomizes true historical research integrity?” Not. Like his compatriot JT Gross, Grabowski avails himself only of information which validates his pre-ordained conclusions. This is typical of the Stalinist methodology practiced by the communist regime under which he was trained.
    Grabowski knowingly distorted research of the respected historian Simon Datner by falsely claiming 200,000 Jews were killed by Poles. When challenged, Grabowski had the temerity to deny making the statement. Unfortunately for him, what goes on the internet stays on the internet. I agree the public is indeed uninformed — i.e. about widespread Jewish complicity in the annihilation of their own people. Yes, blissful ignorance. Moreover, if you had actually read the law, you would know it does not ban research; charlatans like Grabowski will remain unimpeded in promoting their biased narrative, including at the expense of Polish taxpayers.

  • JetHag

    “In contrast to what was taking place inside Poland between 1939 and 1945, its exiled armed forces played significant roles in the Allied war effort.” NOT “in contrast,” but in concert. The writer apparently believes the 400,000 men and women of the resistance inside occupied Poland to be insignificant. Please desist from spewing this fake history.

  • Richard Harris

    Well said. Grabowski indeed does his “research” on the Holocaust with a clear anti-Polish bias where he suspiciously ignores any documented evidence that undermines his objective of degrading and demonizing solely Polish people. For example, he ignores Jewish historian Hanna Arendt’s reports of substantial Nazi Jewish collaboration.

  • Richard Harris

    What you say is true. Grabowskl shows his anti-Polish bias by belittling the substantial efforts of Poles fighting the Nazi Germans in German occupied Poland. I wonder if he also belittles the substantial efforts the Poles made fighting the Nazi Germans outside of German occupied Poland like the Polish squadrons in the Battle of Britain which were key in saving Britain. Polish squadron 303 was the best fighter squadron of all the Allied forces in the Battle of Britain as referenced by the British military.

    Grabowski doesn’t mention these Polish squadrons, so he probably has a belittling attitude towards them as well.

  • anna robaczewski

    Prof. Grabowski focuses only on those who behaved badly during the very brutal German occupation of Poland. No one can deny those existed. Would be better balanced and honest research if he spoke of the others too, those who risked the lives of their families to help their Jewish neighbours.
    Approximately 350,000 Jews survived the war in Poland. It is estimated that it took a minimum of 10 people to save one Jew , so 3,500,000 people risked their lives and those if their families ( approx. 14,000,000) to do so.
    This done under the watchful eyes of the Germans , volkdeuch, guns and tanks.
    My Dad told a story , which may or may not be true, but illustrated the situation in those days.
    A Polish man came to a bridge where a German soldier had caught a Jewish boy. Here Polack he said , throw this boy over the bridge. The man said no. If you don’t , said the German soldier, I will shoot you and throw you both over the bridge, my way one of you survives. The man threw the boy over the bridge. Good Polack said the German and the man went home . Two days later he hanged himself.

  • Denise Coughlin

    Professor Grabowski spins history to his own perceptions to make money. And that is what the law is all about. Lots of journalists have used the term Polish Death Camps which is false terminology and implies on the surface Poles implemented the camps to people who are new to this history Many magazines have used this phrase unapologetic ally in the past, giving readers revised history. What is wrong with a law that states that using this phrase is a crime? I believe it’s on the same level as denying the Holocaust ever happened. There are several countries which prosecute people who revise the Holocaust narrative. Poland is only using the same type of law as these countries. Why is Poland not entitled to protect its citizens and history by making sure the true historical perpetrators of the Holocaust are not downplayed. And yes there were Poles who collaborated with Germans to SAVE their lives…read about them. Read about the horrific way Poles were used and pitted against each other in every way imaginable and tell me why it is so imperative to bring out the most disturbing claims about what happened and downplay their own suffering. There were not a million and half Poles that died, but three million and more that were sent to concentration camps, plus those executed by Russians and Ukrainians besides being sent to the frozen hell of Siberia.

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